By O. Tizgar. Wingate University. 2019.
In the latter stages of these diseases when the skin is livid vantin 200mg sale, the tongue red order 200 mg vantin amex, or red and glazed buy 200mg vantin, with generic 100mg vantin overnight delivery. It may be alternated with aconite or other suggested remedy for the fever, or if there be deep muscular soreness, with cimicifuga. Its value in all forms of rheumatism is great, and cannot be explained on the basis of its physiological action, as the homeopathists obtain excellent results from very minute doses. It is given in chronic rheumatism and to relieve the results of rheumatic inflammation. In persistent dry, tickling bronchial coughs rhus is a good remedy, whether they be acute or chronic. It is combined with or alternated with bryonia or aconite in capillary bronchitis with those characteristic coughs. Hurd claims that when Lagrippe first made its appearance, the first two cases had a guiding symptom that caused him to give full doses of rhus tox. The patient would seize the head with both hands and groan as if he were in agony. This peculiar frontal headache was relieved within an hour by this remedy, establishing a line of investigation for its use. The use of this remedy in small doses, internally, frequently repeated with rhus poisoning, has long been advised. When gastric or intestinal disorders in children induce cerebral engorgement with great restlessness and flushed face, the specific tongue, mouth and mucous membrane indications being present, rhus is the remedy. These cerebral symptoms may be induced by any inflammatory disease, and successfully cured with rhus. In adults they are found in prolonged adynamic fevers, and often are a serious complication. Rhus will meet other prominent indications often while Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 379 correcting the brain phenomena. It has an antispasmodic influence, preventing spasms when induced by cerebral engorgement, or irritation which is of reflex origin or caused by gastric or intestinal irritation, the characteristic indications for the remedy being present. Webster says he values it more highly than gelsemium or lobelia in infantile convulsions, if its indications are present. In gastro-intestinal disturbances accompanying the inflammatory conditions over which rhus has an especial influence, this agent is a direct sedative. It arrests nervous and reflex vomiting promptly, and vomiting from any cause when the tongue is pointed with reddened tip and edges. In acute abdominal pain, in cholera morbus, with extreme vomiting and spasmodic pain, this agent is valuable. In local inflammations, induration and swelling tending to suppuration, as of boils, felons and carbuncle, the indications point to this remedy, and given internally its influence is often excellent. In ulcerations with red areas and red edges, in scrofulous indurations and ulcerations, it is useful. This agent must be used continually, and the prescriber must familiarize himself with all its side influences before he can fully appreciate its great value. In pruritus of the vulva or other localities where there is erythema, with redness, persistent in some cases, especially with blonde children with eczematous tendencies, or children of a scrofulous diathesis, this agent is most prompt and valuable. There is a form of eczema, usually acute in character with the inflammatory evidences of burning, redness, itching, and perhaps swelling, that rhus will quickly cure. The homeopathist advises it for these in the second decimal dilution, five drops every two hours. In any skin disease where there is violent itching, circumscribed redness, burning, swelling, pain and vesication, especially if fever be present, the condition more or less acute as above mentioned in erysipelas or other skin disorders, this remedy is prescribed with success. Cold-pressed castor oil, Oleum Ricini, is viscid, nearly or quite transparent, with a mawkish odor and an offensive taste. Administration—The taste of castor oil is disgusting to many and unpalatable to all. It is partially disguised when the dose is added to a teacupful of hot milk and well stirred. Wine, ale and beer are suggested, probably because of a love for such auxiliaries. An inunction of the oil over the abdomen is usually sufficient to produce a full laxative effect in babes. It may be continued from day to day for the cure of chronic constipation in young children. A kneading or rubbing of the bowels will stimulate peristaltic action and increase the influence of the oil. When nervous irritation in children occurs with fever, from undigested food or irritating substances in the stomach or bowels, a dose of castor oil sufficient to produce free evacuation without pain may given at once. Its action will usually remove the irritating causes, and the fever and nerve irritation will quickly subside. It has a secondary action like rhubarb, and constipation usually follows its use or a day or two. In the treatment of dysentery it is good practice to thoroughly evacuate Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 381 the bowels with castor oil and to follow it with full doses of sweet oil. If the oil is administered early in the case and followed with the suggested remedies the disease often abates at once. It seems in itself to exercise a mild sedative effect, not only that it quiets distress in the bowels and removes irritating substances but it promotes quiet and sleep. It is used in a few cases after surgical operations, after labor on the second or third day, and after taking vermifuges, and whenever a simple, prompt agent is needed to evacuate the primae viae. Specific Symptomatology—The tonic and astringent properties of this remedy are underestimated. It is an acceptable and prompt astringent in diarrheas of infancy, where the evidences of relaxation and enfeeblement of the mucous coats of the stomach and bowels are marked, and where there is deficient action of all glandular organs, especially of the liver, the patient being pale, feeble, without appetite. Therapy—In those cases of diarrhea where there are large, watery, clay- colored discharges three or four times each day, an infusion of blackberry root will sometimes correct this entire train of symptoms. It is a renal depurant and general alterative of much value when ulceration of mucous surfaces or disease of the skin results from impure blood. It acts directly in its restorative influence, purifying the blood, removing morbific material, and quickly cures the disease conditions. It is valuable in ulcerative stomatitis, in nursing sore mouth, and in ulceration of the stomach with great lack of tone, combined with quercus or other tonic astringent, it has no equal in these conditions. It has been used also in the treatment of syphilis and scrofula with good results. Vassar of Ohio believes that Yellow Dock is the best remedy known to prevent the inroads made by cancer on the human system. I have mentioned the fact that this remedy will absorb iron from the soil very rapidly and carry a much larger proportion than normal, thus rendering the iron organic.
Performance may not be as sharp as in a drug-free state discount vantin 200 mg mastercard, but performance is in the normal range purchase vantin 200 mg on line. If a pregnant woman uses opiates regularly the fetus soon adapts to the presence of the drug and seems to develop normally cheap vantin 100mg with amex, although an infant can be born resonant with (that is buy vantin 100 mg without prescription, dependent on) the drug and undergo withdrawal. Intermittent use of opi- ates is more damaging to a fetus than regular use, with the changing drug environment causing extra stress as a fetus copes with one condition and then another. Opiates cause fetal metabolism to increase, diverting energy away from body development. Infants born to opiate users are commonly smaller 24 The Encyclopedia of Addictive Drugs than normal, and early slowness of brain development has been observed. Evidence exists that fetal exposure causes long-lasting problems in children, involving impulsiveness and inattention, but some researchers feel that home environment (often involving a single-parent opiate abuser with additional problems) is a better explanation for those difﬁculties. For information about speciﬁc opiate class depressants, see alphabetical list- ings for: buprenorphine, codeine, dihydrocodeine, etorphine, heroin, hy- drocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, nalbuphine, opium, oxycodone, pholcodine, and thebaine. Opioid Class Opioids are often called opiates, which is satisfactory for practical purposes because the two classes of drugs basically produce the same effects in the same way. If the history of a product were traced backward through its manufacturing processes, opiates generally would begin with the opium plant, but opioids would generally begin in a laboratory. Despite this technical distinction, the terms opiates and opioids are often used synonymously. Some of these sub- stances are called “semisynthetic” and are referred to as “opiate/opioid. Anabolic substances build up parts of living organisms, as opposed to catabolic substances, which decompose those parts. Anabolic steroids are abused mainly by persons desiring to increase muscle mass, such as compet- itive athletes and body builders. Steroids can improve muscle strength in fe- males and in castrated males, but scientiﬁc evidence is weaker for intact males. Still, steroids do seem to promote muscle mass, endurance, and overall athletic performance while dosage continues. Some scientists suspect that any perfor- mance enhancement experienced from anabolic steroids comes not from mus- cle power but from psychological effects, with the drugs increasing a user’s aggressiveness. Anabolic steroids can produce mania, anger, impulsiveness, euphoria, and feelings of invincibility—a combination that may lead some users into harmful social interactions. The combination can produce other types of unwise behavior as well, such as extravagant expenditures of money and taking reckless physical risks. Reports exist of paranoia and hallucinations developing while using steroids and disappearing when steroid usage is stopped. Drug Types 25 Sports governing authorities banned the use of anabolic steroids by com- petitors. Various other drugs are prohibited as well, but in 1988 most of the failed drug tests ordered by the International Olympic Committee revealed anabolic steroids, the most common one being nandrolone. In the 1990s a study involving 58,625 college students found only 175 steroid takers to study. Similar association of steroids with other illicit drug usage is found at the high school level. The number of regular users will be much smaller than the number of “lifetime” users. A female who uses those drugs may develop facial hair and a deeper voice, along with unwanted changes in sexual organs. In a young person who is still growing, androgens can pre- maturely halt further growth and thereby cause a smaller adult stature. Among persons of either gender and any age, androgens may alter blood composition and increase the body’s retention of various minerals. For example, sodium retention promotes bloat- ing and can be inadvisable for persons with heart trouble. Extended use of the substance may worsen cholesterol levels, thereby narrowing blood ves- sels, and such narrowing promotes heart attack and stroke years later. Steroid abusers tend to take far higher doses than are considered medically safe, thus further increasing the risks. Oral and slow-release under-the-skin implant for- mats of anabolic steroids can be processed in ways that will physically permit them to be injected. Such a practice is highly dangerous, as noninjectable for- mats of drugs have components that are not designed for direct introduction into the bloodstream. Anabolic steroid dependence is reported with withdrawal symptoms that can include weariness and depression. For information about speciﬁc anabolic steroids, see alphabetical listings for: boldenone, ethylestrenol, ﬂuoxymesterone, methandriol, methandrosteno- lone, methyltestosterone, nandrolone, oxandrolone, oxymetholone, stano- zolol, testolactone, testosterone, and trenbolone. Is it something that goes away if 26 The Encyclopedia of Addictive Drugs someone’s eyes open? Specialists may quibble, but this book classiﬁes all such experiences as hal- lucinations. Many people dislike hallucinatory experiences, especially people who like to be in control of themselves and of situations around them. Such people often ﬁnd hallucinations not only unpleasant but downright frightening. Scientiﬁc interest in hallucinogens began to emerge in the 1800s, blossoming in the 1950s and 1960s. In those latter times hallucinogens were popularly identiﬁed with beatniks and hippies, and social disapproval of those lifestyles promoted legal restrictions on hallucinogens that terminated almost all sci- entiﬁc research regarding these substances. First, despite easy availability, inhalants are among the most dangerous of abused substances. There is no range of inhalants, some of which are benign and some of which are risky, as there is with stimulants or depressants. All inhalants are dangerous despite wide var- iations in their chemistry, and this sets them apart from other types of drugs. Second, inhalants are generally used by inhaling them in their gaseous state (which is not the same as smoking and also differs from eating a solid or drinking a liquid). Third, inhalants are used mainly by younger persons (typically teenage males), a usage pattern that also sets inhalants apart from other drugs. With some inhalants the amount needed to produce a recreational effect is close to a fatal dose, and deadly outcomes demonstrate that the difference was too close for some deceased users to handle. In addition, strenuous exercise seems related to inhalant death, troublesome for users at dance clubs. The products are often ﬂammable, sometimes producing serious physical injury unrelated to pharmacology.
A free flow of urine is often a most effectual sedative discount vantin 100mg, materially assisting in the reduction of excessive temperature cheap vantin 200mg on-line. There are but Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica generic vantin 200mg free shipping, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 18 seldom 100mg vantin overnight delivery, unpleasant effects observed from mild stimulation of the kidneys, under these circumstances. It assists in the elimination of heat, and waste products, and greatly lessens the danger of auto-intoxication, acting more effectually in many cases, than free evacuation of the bowels. While the demulcent effect of this agent is not as great as that of other diuretics, its influence under the circumstances above named is often more satisfactory. Administration— The powder is of greenish yellow color, strongly narcotic odor, nauseating, strongly bitter taste. Specific Medicine ailanthus, is prescribed twenty drops in four ounces of water; a teaspoonful every hour or two hours. Physiological Action—In overdoses ailanthus causes vertigo, severe headache, pains in the back and limbs, together with great prostration, tingling and numbness; it reduces the pulse-beat and the respiration and causes great weakness, cold sweats and shivering. If it be given too frequently, or in too large doses, it causes death by paralyzing the respiratory center, its influence resembling that of tobacco. It is said that both quassia and gentian intensify its action, and that it should not be administered with either iron or lead compounds. The presence of ailanthus in a malarial locality, like eucalyptus, will correct the malarial influence of that locality. It is indicated in cases in which all the evidences of sepsis are quite pronounced or prominent, such as a dusky eruption, dirty, dry, cracked tongue malignant sore throat and tonsils, with sordes on the teeth, and excoriating discharges from the nose and mouth, bad respiration, and adynamic persistence of disagreeable symptoms telling of blood-poison; Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 19 in atonic conditions of the nerves, or of the mucous membranes of the body, or great general weakness and prostration. Therapy—It is of much service in scarlet fever, especially the malignant form, in typhoid, and other types of low fever and in low forms of acute inflammation. With special reference to the action of ailanthus as a tonic to the nervous system, it is efficient as a remedy in some cases of asthma as well as in epilepsy, and in many cases of epileptiform contraction of the muscles, etc. Frequently ailanthus will relieve nervous palpitations and severe cases of singultus, that for a long time have withstood other remedies. With the Chinese, a decoction of ailanthus is a most, favored remedy in tapeworm, dysentery and diarrhoea. Because of its special tonic effect on mucous membranes it is an excellent remedy in some cases of leucorrhea, etc. It is indicated when the patient complains of extreme weakness in the uterine structures, when there is general feebleness induced from overwork or from oversexual indulgence, or from too frequent child bearing. In hyperactivity of the womb and ovaries from lack of tone, deficient menstruation, or sterility from this cause, pale insufficient flow at protracted intervals; anemia and chlorosis, with insufficient menses in young girls, the agent is of great service. Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 20 Therapy—In the above named condition when iron or other tonics are used for their general influence, this remedy should be given for its specific effect. Its direct influence upon the pelvic organs is sometimes magical under such circumstances. It is a fine tonic and is efficient in flatulent colic and dyspepsia, increasing the tone of the stomach; used also with benefit in general and local debility. One of our correspondents says he has frequently given aletris in cases of threatening abortion, for three, four, five and six months, the woman going her full term without any untoward effect, rendering the labor easy and safe. In chlorosis, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and all engorged conditions of the uterus, as well as prolapsus of that organ, it is a charming remedy. It can be given alone, or combined or alternated with caulophyllum, or with cimicifuga, senecio or helonias as indicated. The viburnum will allay pain; both are sedative to the uterine and ovarian nerve centers. I do not know of any better remedy for such troubles than aletris and viburnum, as anti-abortive. Hence in ovarian irritation, or dysmenorrhea, viburnum will promptly relieve the pain. In leucorrhea, aletris, four times a day, or every four hours, will act promptly, if continued, where there is a debilitated condition, defective nutrition and anemic If there is pain in the hips and back, constipation and piles, aesculus hippocastanum can alternate with the aletris. In emaciated and enfeebled women the influence of this remedy is markedly conspicuous. It improves the function of the ovaries, overcoming sterility and correcting habitual abortion promptly. In the extreme nausea of pregnancy with vomiting, dizziness, or fainting spells, this agent has a direct influence and may be relied upon. It Ellingwood’s American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy - Page 21 acts exceedingly well with helonias, senecio aureus, viburnum, and caulophyllum or cimicifuga. While given for its influence-upon the reproductive organs, it tones the stomach, increases the appetite, improves the digestion and the appropriation of food, and thus directly promotes the elaboration of good blood. Administration—The fresh juice is used in medicine, the crushed bulbs are used externally, and a tincture is prepared, of which from five to thirty drops is the dose. Physiological Action—There is positive proof of the antiseptic properties of this agent. One writer claims that diphtheria does not occur in families that are free partakers of the onion in any way. If used moderately for a while the quantity can be increased without unpleasantness. The odor is no more unpleasant than that of carbolic acid, creolin, asafetida and some others. Covert gave the following facts concerning the common onion: “The volatile oil is the essential part of the onion, and has not only gastronomic but therapeutic merit. The onion is expectorant, stimulant, diuretic, rubefacient and discutient, and as a domestic remedy is well remembered by the oldest inhabitants in the form of onion syrup, onion draughts, onion poultices and the like. It was long declared of much importance in the treatment of croup and as an application to the chest in all inflammations of the lungs and bronchi. The specific indications are extreme urinary irritation, with a constant desire to urinate and the passage of calcareous concretions. The cystoscope shows the bladder walls greatly thickened, nodulated and imbedded with concretions of various sizes. This persistent and almost incurable condition has been quickly cured by a tincture of the red onion and the tincture of cocklebur in equal parts, from fifteen to twenty drops given every three hours. The cure of this condition alone by the agent will give it a place in therapeutics. It removes waste products, improves the tone of mucous structures and increases the secretory action of the glands of these structures. At the same time it prevents the flow of an excessive quantity of mucus into the stomach, and stimulates the flow of gastric juice and aids the digestion. It cures various forms of ulcerations in the mouth, or in the gastro-intestinal canal.
The Ca2 entry activates K Ca channels cheap vantin 100 mg amex, to produce a long-lasting (several hundred ms) after-hyperpolarisation generic vantin 200mg with mastercard. Hence order vantin 100mg, as the Ca2 is extruded and the K current declines buy cheap vantin 100mg, the low-threshold T-type Ca2 channels open, and the cell depolarises to Ca reach the threshold for the Na channel, giving a new action potential, and so on. The burst is arrested first because the Na channels inactivate, and then because the T-type Ca2 channels inactivate. Both inactivation processes are removed when the cell hyperpolarises back again, so becoming available for another burst. As a result, the cells change their firing pattern from tonic firing to burst-firing simply dependent on membrane potential. This is thought to explain the switch between tonic firing in awake animals to burst-firing during slow-wave sleep. In the awake state, the neurons are maintained in a tonic state of depolarisation due to the release of neurotransmitters such as histamine and acetylcholine, which inhibit K currents (see above), but hyperpolarise during slow-wave sleep when transmitter release diminishes Ð or when the receptors for the transmitters are blocked by anti-histamines or anti-cholinergic drugs. However, it should be emphasised that T-channels are quite widely distributed and their burst-inducing properties may also be important in some forms of epilepsy since they can be blocked by certain anti-epileptic drugs, such as ethosuximide. Finally, entry of Ca2 through somatic and dendritic Ca2 channels activates calmodulin-dependent protein kinases to modulate transcription, and thereby plays a crucial role in certain components of neural development and plasticity. Neither L nor T channels appear susceptible to the form of G-protein-mediated inhibition characteristic of N or P/Q channels. This leads to a slow depolarisation until the threshold for the T-type Ca2 channels open, leading to a rapid depolarisation and spiking (Fig. The h-channels then switch off (because the cell is depolarised) and reopen during the subsequent hyperpolarisation. In this way sustained oscillations of membrane potential, leading to a steady rhythmic action potential discharge, can be maintained. The h-channels are blocked by low concentrations of Cs ions, or by agents which block the cardiac current and slow the heart: such agents inhibit the neural membrane potential oscillations and discharges. Conversely, transmitters or mediators that inhibit adenylate cyclase, like enkephalins and adenosine, shift the activation curve to more negative potentials and slow rhythmic discharges. The amplifier also incorporates a device for applying a potential to the pipette, so that the potential across the cell membrane at the tip of the pipette can be varied. By convention, the direction of current flow always refers to the direction in which ve ions move. Thus, outward current is generated by ve ions flowing out of the cell into the pipette (or 7ve ions going the other way). Also by convention, outward current is depicted as an upward deflection in the recording. Single-channel conductances are mostly within the range 2±100 picosiemens (pS): in this case, the conductance is about 8 pS with 2. This channel is voltage-sensitive Ð that is, its activity is increased when the membrane is depolarised. Thus, the channel opens very infrequently and for very short periods at À50 mV, but opens more frequently and for longer times at À30 mV. This activity is expressed by the open probability (Po), that is, the probability that, at any given time, the channel is open (or, in other words, the proportion of time the channel spends in the open state). There are many hundreds or thousands of such channels in the entire membrane of a single ganglion cell. This can be recorded using the patch pipette by filling the pipette with a solution of similar ionic composition to that of the cytoplasm (i. In the former case, the solution in the pipette is in direct contact with the cytoplasm, so substances in the cytoplasm diffuse into the pipette and vice versa; nystatin and amphotericin conduct small ions such as Na and K across the cell membrane under the pipette tip, so providing good electrical contact with the cytoplasm, but do not permit total mixing of the two solutions. An older, but still useful, method is to insert one or more fine micro-electrodes filled with a strong K solution into the cell and then let them seal into the membrane. At a hyperpolarised potential (À75 mV), a current injection produces a brief burst of action potentials superimposed whereas at À53 mV the cell responds with a sustained train of action potentials. Each record show voltage-trace (top), injected current pulse (middle) and T-type Ca2 current (bottom). At a depolarised potential (b and d), the T-channels are fully inactivated so depolarisation does not initiate a T- current (record d) and now evokes a train of Na spikes instead of a burst (record b). At (4) the depolarisation has closed (deactivated) the h- channels and has inactivated the T-channels. However, they do not open instantly but instead take many milliseconds to open Ð that is, their voltage-gating is relatively slow compared to that of (say) a Na channel. The time taken by any individual channel to assume its new level of open probability varies stochastically about a mean. This can be estimated for a single channel, or for the small cluster of channels seen in Fig. As one might expect, the time-course of the whole-cell current is quite similar to that of the ensemble of the currents through the small cluster of channels. In a normal cell, however, the voltage is not fixed: the effect of the current is to change the voltage, and signals are normally seen as voltage signals. When the cell (a frog ganglion cell) was artificially hyperpolarised to À90 mV (left column) so that all of the M-channels were shut, very little current flowed when the voltage was changed (i. Membrane capacitance is determined by the lipid composition of the membrane and is relatively constant at around 1 mF/cm2 membrane. A hyper- polarising step closes some of the channels, giving a slow decline in current, whereas depolarisation opened more, giving a slow increase in current Ð the gating of M- channels being characteristically slow, as shown in Fig. So now when depolarising current is injected into the cell (bottom record), the membrane begins to depolarise as before but the depolarisation opens more M-channels, and the K current through these extra M-channels hyperpolarises the membrane nearly back to where it started. Note that the effect of activating the current is to severely reduce the voltage response to current injection. Hence, because M-channels are voltage- sensitive, changes in voltage affect current through M-channels and changes in current through M-channels in turn affect voltage, in such a manner as to stabilise the membrane potential Ð a negative feedback effect. The bottom trace shows a synaptic current recorded under voltage clamp at a preset voltage of À60 mV from a ganglion cell on giving a single shock to the preganglionic fibres. The synaptic current is generated by acetylcholine released from the preganglionic fibres, which opens nicotinic cation channels in the ganglion cell membrane to produce an inward cation current. The top trace shows what happens when the voltage-clamp circuit is switched off, to allow the membrane potential to change. The inward synaptic current now generates a depolarisation (the synaptic potential), which in turn initiates an action potential. This is exactly what synaptic potentials should do, of course, but no Na current is seen under voltage clamp because the membrane potential is held below the threshold for Na channel opening. However, action potentials can still be recorded with extracellular electrodes, by placing the electrode near to the cell (Fig. In this case, the electrode tip picks up the local voltage-drop induced by current passing into or out of the cell.
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