These statements serve as indicators of increased public awareness of the sequelae of undertreated pain and help clarify that the use of opioids for the relief of chronic pain is a legitimate medical practice buy cheap topamax 200 mg on line. Due to concerns about drug misuse 200 mg topamax free shipping, diversion and addiction purchase topamax 200mg mastercard, and regulatory scrutiny generic topamax 100mg line, physicians may want guidance as to what principles should generally be followed when prescribing opioids for chronic or recurrent pain states. Regulators have also expressed a need for guidelines to help them to distinguish legitimate medical practice from questionable practice and to allow them to appropriately concentrate investigative, educational, and disciplinary efforts, while not interfering with legitimate medical care. The American Academy of Pain Medicine offers these Statements on the Use of Opioids for the Treatment of Chronic Pain: I. Legislation and Regulatory Policies Should Limit Inappropriate Prescribing But Should Not Discourage Or Prevent Prescription Of Opioids Where Medically Indicated And Appropriately Managed. The United States is in a critical phase of national and state policy development with respect to the use of opioids in pain treatment. There has been recent interest in this issue in both the United States Senate and the House of Representatives. State legislatures have enacted laws intended to reduce the prevalence of “pill mills” which have led to overprescribing of opioids with little to no medical necessity. The purpose of laws that govern controlled substances and professional conduct is to protect the public. Thus, we believe that federal and state policies should be directed at reducing the problem of improper drug diversion and abuse while, at the same time, allowing appropriate medical treatment. However, if a practitioner responsibly decides to treat chronic pain with opioids, we offer this document as a guide to the judicious use of these drugs in the course of medical practice. Prescription Of Opioids For Chronic, Intractable Pain Is Appropriate When More Conservative Methods Are Ineffective And The Treatment Plan Is Reasonably Designed To Avoid Diversion, Addiction, And Other Adverse Effects. Since chronic pain may have myriad causes and perpetuating factors, treatment strategies and options include interventional techniques, cognitive and behavioral methods, rehabilitation approaches, and the use of medications, including, where medically indicated, opioids. Therefore, treatment goals and clinical focus include pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic methods to improve the management of pain, improve quality of life, and decrease suffering. Of course, the physician must prescribe in a manner calculated to avoid addiction, diversion, respiratory depression, dependence, and other adverse effects. We also believe that responsible prescription of opioids should not be inhibited by fear of criminal prosecution or regulatory action. Physicians Should Be Sensitive To And Seek To Minimize The Risks Of Addiction, Respiratory Depression And Other Adverse Effects, Tolerance, And Diversion. Addiction: Addiction is a neurobiological, compulsive disorder in which an individual becomes preoccupied with obtaining and using a substance-- and experiences a lack of control over using that substance -- despite continued use that results in a decreased quality of life and significant adverse consequences. Addiction is a serious problem that should be considered as a possibility in all patients receiving opioids. However, misunderstanding of addiction and mislabeling of patients as addicts may result in unnecessary withholding of opioid medications. In all cases, the physician must balance the possibility of addiction against the benefits of the therapy – striving always to reduce the risk of the former. In some cases, however, treatment by an addiction medicine specialist may be indicated. While respiratory depression can occur with patients taking opioids, this risk can generally be minimized if certain precautions are followed. For instance, concomitant use of other neuro-depressive drugs, such as benzodiazepines and alcohol, should be viewed with great caution, since the combination of these drugs has been shown to increase the risk of serious adverse events. In addition, caution with dosing and titrations is indicated for patients with underlying diagnoses such as sleep apnea or end-stage respiratory disease due to the increased risk of cardio-respiratory events. Finally, patients do not develop complete tolerance to the respiratory depressant effects of opioids and the risk of respiratory depression increases as dose increases, regardless of how long one is on opioids. Tolerance: It was previously thought that the development of analgesic tolerance limited the ability to use opioids effectively on a long-term basis for pain management. Tolerance, or decreasing pain relief with the same dosage over time, has not proven to be a significant impediment to long-term opioid use. Experience with treating cancer pain has shown that what initially appears to be tolerance is usually progression of the disease. In the noncancer patient, the failure to respond to increasing doses of opioids should be evaluated very carefully. The possibilities include tolerance, disease progression, non-opioid responsive pain syndromes, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Diversion: Diversion of controlled substances should be a concern of every health professional. Attention to patterns of prescription requests and the prescribing of opioids as part of an ongoing relationship between a patient and a healthcare provider can decrease the risk of diversion. Urine and/or blood drug screening, frequent follow up and patient contact, and pill counts are some commonly used clinical interventions that may be helpful in ruling out the issue of diversion. Periodic review of state prescription monitoring program databases, where available, is also a useful tool to monitor compliance and adequacy of communication. Opioids Should Be Prescribed Only After A Thorough Evaluation Of The Patient, Consideration Of Alternatives, Development Of A Treatment Plan Tailored To The Needs Of The Patient And Minimization of Adverse Effects, And On-Going Monitoring And Documentation. Evaluation of the patient: Evaluation should initially include a pain history and assessment of the impact of pain on the patient, a directed physical examination, a review of previous diagnostic studies, a review of previous treatments, a drug history, and an assessment of coexisting diseases or conditions. Treatment plan: Treatment planning should be tailored to both the individual and the presenting problem. Consideration should be given to different treatment modalities, such as an 3 © 2013 American Academy of Pain Medicine - Approved February 2013 interventional approach, a formal pain rehabilitation program, the use of physical medicine and psychological and behavioral strategies, or the use of medications, depending upon the physical and psychosocial impairment related to the pain. Opioids should be prescribed only if the physician reasonably concludes that other treatment modalities will be inadequate to address the patient’s pain. A trial of opioids implies setting expectations that the medications will be prescribed for a short period of time. Continued use will be contingent upon demonstrated improvement in analgesia, physical function and quality of life – and absence of significant adverse events and maladaptive behaviors. Consultation as needed: Consultation with a Pain Medicine or other specialist may be warranted, depending on the expertise of the practitioner and the complexity of the presenting problem. The management of pain in patients with a history of addiction or a comorbid psychiatric disorder requires special consideration. Periodic review of treatment efficacy: Review of treatment efficacy should occur frequently to assess the functional status of the patient, continued analgesia, adverse effects, quality of life, and indications of medication misuse. Monitoring of compliance is a critical aspect of chronic opioid prescribing, using such tools as random urine drug screening, pill counts, and where available, review of prescription monitoring data base reports. Close follow-up and reexamination is warranted to assess the nature of the pain complaint and to ensure that opioid therapy is still indicated. Attention should be given to the possibility of a decrease in global function or quality of life as a result of opioid use. Documentation: Documentation is essential for supporting the evaluation, the reason for opioid prescribing, the overall pain management treatment plan, any consultations received, and periodic review of the status of the patient. Keywords Abstract diagnosis; drug allergy; drug Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitiv- hypersensitivity; intradermal test; skin test. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise Correspondence information on speciﬁc test concentrations. Knut Brockow, Department of based on history alone, which is an unreliable indicator of true hypersensitiv- Dermatology and Allergology Biederstein, ity.
Long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in Caucasian patients: mortality after 25 years generic topamax 100 mg without prescription. Long-term follow-up of patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with interferon alfa cheap 100 mg topamax free shipping. Incident hepatitis C virus infection in men who have sex with men: a prospective cohort analysis purchase topamax 200 mg with visa, 1984-2011 order 100 mg topamax with visa. Decreased immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in chronic hepatitis C. Impaired dendritic cell maturation in patients with chronic, but not resolved, hepatitis C virus infection. Booster immunization of low- and non-responders after a standard three dose hepatitis B vaccine schedule--results of a post-marketing surveillance. Randomized, comparative trial of 20 micrograms vs 40 micrograms Engerix B vaccine in hepatitis B vaccine non-responders. Revaccination of healthy nonresponders with hepatitis B vaccine and prediction of seroprotection response. Comparative evaluation of the immunogenicity of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine by a prospective and retrospective trial. A randomized clinical trial of immunization with combined hepatitis A and B versus hepatitis B alone for hepatitis B seroprotection in hemodialysis patients. Hepatitis A and B immunizations of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Tenofovir treatment in patients with lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B mutants strongly affects viral replication. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate therapy for chronic hepatitis B in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus-coinfected individuals for whom interferon-alpha and lamivudine therapy have failed. Chronic active hepatitis B exacerbations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients following development of resistance to or withdrawal of lamivudine. Reactivation of hepatitis B in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. Hepatitis B exacerbation with a precore mutant virus following withdrawal of lamivudine in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on the combined effect of hepatitis B and C virus infections in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation During Successful Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus With Sofosbuvir and Simeprevir. Direct-acting antiviral treatment in adults infected with hepatitis C virus: Reactivation of hepatitis B virus coinfection as a further challenge. Fulminant hepatitis B reactivation leading to liver transplantation in a patient with chronic hepatitis C treated with simeprevir and sofosbuvir: a case report. Severe lactic acidosis during treatment of chronic hepatitis B with entecavir in patients with impaired liver function. Does treatment with interferon-based therapy improve the natural history of chronic hepatitis B infection? Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: emergence of a unique syndrome during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Hepatotoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus and the role of hepatitis C or B virus infection. Hepatotoxicity associated with protease inhibitor- based antiretroviral regimens with or without concurrent ritonavir. Long-term incidence of hepatitis B virus resistance to lamivudine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Low resistance to adefovir combined with lamivudine: a 3-year study of 145 lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B patients. Long-term outcomes of two rescue therapies in lamivudine-refractory patients with chronic hepatitis B: combined lamivudine and adefovir, and 1-mg entecavir. Introduction to the revised American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Practice Guideline management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis 2012. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: a randomized trial. Failed postnatal immunoprophylaxis for hepatitis B: characteristics of maternal hepatitis B virus as risk factors. Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry international interim report for 1 January 1989 through 31 January 2012. Long-term safety and efficacy of telbivudine in infants born to mothers treated during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy. The reproductive effects of beta interferon therapy in pregnancy: a longitudinal cohort. Fewer than 20% of patients with acute infection have characteristic symptoms, including low-grade fever, mild right- upper-quadrant pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, dark urine, and jaundice. Coinfected patients with cirrhosis are at risk of life-threatening complications and should be managed in consultation with a gastroenterologist or hepatologist. Because of its relatively poor specificity and sensitivity, alfa-fetoprotein should not be the sole screening method. The armamenarium of approved drugs is likely to expand considerably in the next few years. Defects noted in animals include limb abnormalities, craniofacial defects, exencephaly, and anophthalmia. Inadvertent pregnancy during paternal exposure was not associated with adverse events in two newborns. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1999 through 2002. Survival of hepatitis C virus in syringes: implication for transmission among injection drug users. Transmission of hepatitis C virus by blood transfusions and other medical procedures: a global review. Acute hepatitis C virus infections attributed to unsafe injection practices at an endoscopy clinic--Nevada, 2007. Hepatitis C virus infection among sexually promiscuous groups and the heterosexual partners of hepatitis C virus infected index cases. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review. Obstetric management of hepatitis C-positive mothers: analysis of vertical transmission in 559 mother-infant pairs. Peginterferon alfa-2b therapy in acute hepatitis C: impact of onset of therapy on sustained virologic response. Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Regardless of how we work our mental and spiritual program of recovery topamax 100mg with visa, we may react to medication like we did when using drugs generic topamax 100 mg with mastercard. It’s helpful to remember the importance of making a conscious decision not to medicate ourselves or treat our own illnesses buy topamax 100 mg without a prescription. Cleantime is an issue for each of us to resolve individually with our sponsor and our Higher Power order topamax 200mg mastercard. While being of service to our fellowship, there may be times when we begin to feel that taking mind-changing and mood-altering medication has affected our ability to serve effectively. In some cases, members may share with us that they think our behavior and attitude have been impaired by our illness and treatment. Even though our temptation may be to rebel against the opinions of our fellow trusted servants, we remember that they are our eyes and ears. Being honest with ourselves about our strengths and weaknesses is an important part of any inventory. Some members have found that they were fully capable of fulﬁlling their service commitments while taking medication to treat an illness or injury, while others have made the choice to step down. Informing fellow members that we need to step down for a period of time for health reasons illustrates recovery principles in action. This can be viewed as the fulﬁllment of a personal commitment to our health, rather than a failure. We can remind ourselves that we live this way of life just for today, and the decisions we make are not forever. We come to accept today’s health issues, and we can seek other ways to be of service. We may consider a group-level commitment, or we may be a committee member rather than committee chair. We remain open-minded, willing, and honest, seeking out the experience of other members to learn how they were able to serve while living with health issues and medication. Being of service to a fellowship that saved our lives is an act of love, and is not conditional on a speciﬁc position or title. Mental Health Issues “We recommend turning our legal problems over to lawyers and our ﬁnancial or medical problems to professionals. Just as we wouldn’t suggest that an insulin-dependent diabetic addict stop taking their insulin, we don’t tell mentally ill addicts to stop taking their prescribed medication. Responsibility rests with the member to be honest about their condition with informed healthcare professionals, and to evaluate their treatment and medication options. For me, the disease of addiction and my mental disorder must be dealt with simultaneously. Although the steps are my best defense against relapse, no amount of step work, prayer, meeting attendance, or calling my sponsor will change the fact that I have mental illness. Ultimately, the decision to take medi- cation or not to take medication is a deeply personal one. For some addicts, this may mean seeking mental health treatment and taking medication as prescribed. Our experience shows 20 We should share honestly with our doctor and sponsor, examine our motives, and decide what course of action is right for us. Members in this situation often ﬁnd that after a period of time in recovery they are able to stop taking this medication under the supervision of their doctor. We should share honestly with our doctor and sponsor, examine our motives, and decide what course of action is right for us. A mental health professional can assist us in understanding our illness and explain our treatment options. We have found collectively that medicine, religion, and psychiatry alone are not sufﬁcient to treat the disease of addiction. We have found that a meeting may not be the ideal place to share personal details about our diagnosis and treatment. With the freedom to share honestly in meetings comes the responsibility to seek a solution. With the use of any medication, we must be honest with ourselves, our healthcare team, and our sponsor about our feelings and motives. Meetings are a powerful way of carrying our message of recovery to the addict who still suffers. Our ﬁrst reaction may be apprehension, but it is important that we welcome every addict seeking recovery. Our collective attitude should be one of loving acceptance toward all addicts, regardless of any other problems they may experience. The foundation we have in recovery can be a crucial factor in our decision-making process. If we are able to communicate, we let the professionals treating us know that we are recovering addicts. We accept that we are not in control of the situation and trust the professionals who are treating us. It is helpful to remember that the principles of recovery apply to every area of our life, even in a crisis. I explained my addiction to the doctor and asked if not taking the medication would be life-threatening. When we break a bone, experience a high fever, or cut ourselves, we may require emergency care. Relying on others can help alleviate the fear and irrational thinking that we may experience during a medical emergency. However, in some circumstances, we may be involved in an accident or traumatic injury and be forced to act very quickly. During these times we rely on our Higher Power for guidance and maintain our faith. When we are faced with a medical emergency, we can tap into the spiritual connection we have developed with a Higher Power through the steps. The Basic Text tells us that the power that brought us to the program is still with us and will continue to guide us if we allow it. The presence of people we trust and faith in a Higher Power are both valuable tools. The strength we gain from this support can help us 25 make decisions that will enhance our recovery. Relying on others alleviates the fear and irrational thinking that come with isolation. The spiritual connection we have developed with a Higher Power helps guide our decisions and provides a source of strength. A chronic illness is a persistent, often life-threatening, and incurable condition. Our experience is that chronic illnesses may have periods of remission and recurrence. Regardless of our particular circumstances, we apply the spiritual principles of our program to living with our chronic illness.
The prescriber must know the local habits – for example discount topamax 100mg otc, whether it is customary to have gender-separate consultations buy generic topamax 100 mg, or if there is a rule that the examination must be done by a prescriber of the same gender as the patient buy cheap topamax 100 mg on line. It is often necessary to use an interpreter order topamax 200 mg line, and interpreters should be trained in systematically questioning the patient regarding his complaints and history. Like the rest of the health care staff, interpreters must be aware that they are also bound by the rules of confidentiality. Diagnosis rests primarily – and sometimes exclusively – on the clinical findings; hence the importance of taking a careful history of the complaint and symptoms and doing a complete, systematic exam. The data should be copied into the health record, admission note or register so that the patient’s progress can be monitored. A laboratory must be set up for certain diseases, such as tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis. In that case, patients who cannot be diagnosed without imaging should be referred (trauma patients, in particular). Aetiology and pathophysiology Hypovolaemic shock Absolute hypovolaemia due to significant intravascular fluid depletion: – Internal or external haemorrhage: post-traumatic, peri or postoperative, obstetrical (ectopic pregnancy, uterine rupture, etc. A loss of greater than 30% of blood volume in adults will lead to haemorrhagic shock. Relative hypovolaemia due to vasodilation without concomitant increase in intravascular volume: – Anaphylactic reaction: allergic reaction to insect bites or stings; drugs, mainly neuromuscular blockers, antibiotics, acetylsalicylic acid, colloid solutions (dextran, modified gelatin fluid); equine sera; vaccines containing egg protein; food, etc. Septic shock By a complex mechanism, often including vasodilation, heart failure and absolute hypovolaemia. Cardiogenic shock By decrease of cardiac output: – Direct injury to the myocardium: infarction, contusion, trauma, poisoning. Clinical features Signs common to most forms of shock – Pallor, mottled skin, cold extremities, sweating and thirst. Cardiogenic shock – Respiratory signs of left ventricular failure (acute pulmonary oedema) are dominant: tachypnoea, crepitations on auscultation. The aetiological diagnosis is oriented by: – The context: trauma, insect bite, ongoing medical treatment, etc. Management according to the cause Haemorrhage – Control bleeding (compression, tourniquet, surgical haemostasis). Antibiotic therapy according to the origin of infection: Origin Antibiotic therapy Alternative Cutaneous staphylococci, streptococci cloxacillin + gentamicin Pulmonary pneumococci, Haemophilus ampicillin or ceftriaxone co-amoxiclav or ceftriaxone influenzae +/- gentamicin + ciprofloxacin Intestinal or biliary enterobacteria, anaerobic co-amoxiclav + gentamicin ceftriaxone + gentamicin bacteria, enterococci + metronidazole Gynaecological streptococci, gonococci, co-amoxiclav + gentamicin ceftriaxone + gentamicin anaerobic bacteria, E. Example: dopamine: 10 micrograms/kg/minute in a patient weighing 60 kg Hourly dose: 10 (micrograms) x 60 (kg) x 60 (min) = 36 000 micrograms/hour = 36 mg/hour In a 50 ml syringe, dilute one 200 mg-ampoule of dopamine with 0. If there is no electric syringe pump, dilution in an infusion bag may be considered. However, it is important to consider the risks related to this type of administration (accidental bolus or insufficient dose). The infusion must be constantly monitored to prevent any, even small, change from the prescribed rate of administration. Example for epinephrine: – In adults: Dilute 10 ampoules of 1 mg epinephrine (10 000 micrograms) in 1 litre of 5% glucose or 0. For administration, use a paediatric infusion set; knowing that 1 ml = 60 drops, in a child weighting 10 kg: • 0. In pregnant women, eclamptic seizures require specific medical and obstetrical care (see Special situation: seizures during pregnancy). Initial treatment During a seizure – Protect from trauma, maintain airway, place patient in ‘recovery position’, loosen clothing. If generalized seizure lasts more than 3 minutes, use diazepam to stop it: diazepam: Children: 0. The patient is no longer seizing – Look for the cause of the seizure and evaluate the risk of recurrence. Status epilepticus Several distinct seizures without complete restoration of consciousness in between or an uninterrupted seizure lasting more than 10 minutes. If necessary, a second dose of 10 mg/kg may be administered (as above) 15 to 30 minutes after the first dose. If necessary, a second dose of 5 to 10 mg/kg may be administered (as above) 15 to 30 minutes after the first dose. There is a high risk of respiratory depression and hypotension, especially in children and elderly patients. Iatrogenic causes – Withdrawal of antiepileptic therapy in a patient being treated for epilepsy should be managed over a period of 4-6 months with progressive reduction of the doses. Only patients with chronic repetitive seizures require further regular protective treatment with an antiepileptic drug, usually over several years. However, these risks must be balanced with the risks of aggravation of the epilepsy, ensuing seizure-induced cerebral damage and other injury if the patient is not treated. The effective dose must be reached progressively and symptoms and drug tolerance evaluated every 15 to 20 days. The rate of dose reduction varies according to the length of treatment; the longer the treatment period, the longer the reduction period (see Iatrogenic causes). In the same way, a change from one antiepileptic drug to another must be made progressively with an overlap period of a few weeks. Adults: initial dose of 600 mg/day in 2 divided doses; increase by 200 mg/day every 3 days until the optimal dose for the individual has been reached (usually 1 to 2 g/day in 2 divided doses). Adults: initial dose of 200 mg/day in 1 or 2 divided doses; increase by 200 mg every week until the optimal dose for the individual has been reached (usually 800 to 1200 mg/day in 2 to 4 divided doses). Then infuse 1 g/hour, continue magnesium sulfate for 24 hours following delivery or the last seizure. Before each injection, verify the concentration written on the ampoules: it comes in different concentrations. Always have calcium gluconate ready to reverse the effects of magnesium sulfate in the event of toxicity. Other causes During pregnancy, consider that seizures may also be caused by cerebral malaria or meningitis; the incidence of these diseases is increased in pregnant women. Blood glucose levels should be measured whenever possible in patients presenting symptoms of hypoglycaemia. If hypoglycaemia is suspected but blood glucose measurement is not available, glucose (or another available sugar) should be given empirically. Always consider hypoglycaemia in patients presenting impaired consciousness (lethargy, coma) or seizures. Clinical features Rapid onset of non-specific signs, mild to severe depending on the degree of the hypoglycaemia: sensation of hunger and fatigue, tremors, tachycardia, pallor, sweats, anxiety, blurred vision, difficulty speaking, confusion, convulsions, lethargy, coma. Diagnosis Capillary blood glucose concentration (reagent strip test): – Non-diabetic patients: • Hypoglycaemia: < 60 mg/dl (< 3. Symptomatic treatment – Conscious patients: Children: a teaspoon of powdered sugar in a few ml of water or 50 ml of fruit juice, maternal or therapeutic milk or 10 ml/kg of 10% glucose by oral route or nasogastric tube. Adults: 15 to 20 g of sugar (3 or 4 cubes) or sugar water, fruit juice, soda, etc. If there is no clinical improvement, differential diagnoses should be considered: e.
Symptoms include fever topamax 100 mg with visa, night sweats generic topamax 200mg amex, weight loss 100mg topamax with amex, fatigue 200 mg topamax free shipping, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Other focal physical findings or laboratory abnormalities may occur with localized disease. Localized syndromes include cervical or mesenteric lymphadenitis, pneumonitis, pericarditis, osteomyelitis, skin or soft-tissue abscesses, genital ulcers, or central nervous system infection. Other ancillary studies provide supportive diagnostic information, including acid-fast bacilli smear and culture of stool or tissue biopsy material, radiographic imaging, or other studies aimed at isolating organisms from focal infection sites. Available information does not support specific recommendations regarding avoidance of exposure. Azithromycin and clarithromycin also each confer protection against respiratory bacterial infections. Patients will need continuous antimycobacterial treatment unless they achieve immune reconstitution via antiretroviral drugs. Improvement in fever and a decline in quantity of mycobacteria in blood or tissue can be expected within 2 to 4 weeks after initiation of appropriate therapy; clinical response may be delayed, however, in those with more extensive disease or advanced immunosuppression. Adverse effects with clarithromycin and azithromycin include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abnormal taste, and elevations in liver transaminase levels or hypersensitivity reactions. Managing Treatment Failure Treatment failure is defined by the absence of a clinical response and the persistence of mycobacteremia after 4 to 8 weeks of treatment. The regimen should consist of at least two new drugs not used previously, to which the isolate is susceptible. Two studies, each with slightly more than 100 women with first-trimester exposure to clarithromycin, did not demonstrate an increase in or specific pattern of defects, although an increased risk of spontaneous abortion was noted in one study. Diagnostic considerations and indications for treatment of pregnant women are the same as for women who are not pregnant. Pregnant women whose disease fails to respond to a primary regimen should be managed in consultation with infectious disease and obstetrical specialists. Microbiology and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Testing for Mycobacterium avium Complex Prophylaxis. A prospective, randomized trial examining the efficacy and safety of clarithromycin in combination with ethambutol, rifabutin, or both for the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Early manifestations of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease: a prospective evaluation. Incidence of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Incidence and natural history of Mycobacterium avium- complex infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease treated with zidovudine. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mimicking Whipple’s disease. Mycobacterium avium complex infection presenting as endobronchial lesions in immunosuppressed patients. Mycobacterial lymphadenitis associated with the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy. Mycobacterial lymphadenitis after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex with weekly azithromycin, daily rifabutin, or both. A randomized trial of clarithromycin as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Discontinuing or withholding primary prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium in patients on successful antiretroviral combination therapy. Comparison of combination therapy regimens for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with disseminated bacteremia due to Mycobacterium avium. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of rifabutin added to a regimen of clarithromycin and ethambutol for treatment of disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium complex. A randomized evaluation of ethambutol for prevention of relapse and drug resistance during treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia with clarithromycin-based combination therapy. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing azithromycin and clarithromycin in the treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Uveitis and pseudojaundice during a regimen of clarithromycin, rifabutin, and ethambutol. Tolerance and pharmacokinetic interactions of rifabutin and clarithromycin in human immunodeficiency virus-infected volunteers. Paper presented at: national Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine. Recommendations on prophylaxis and therapy for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. In vitro activity of new fluoroquinolones and linezolid against non- tuberculous mycobacteria. Postmarketing surveillance of medications and pregnancy outcomes: clarithromycin and birth malformations. Tachypnea and decreased arterial oxygen saturation indicate moderate-to-severe pneumonia and clinicians should strongly consider hospitalizing such patients. Patients with bacterial pneumonia typically have signs of focal consolidation, such as egophony, and/ or pleural effusion on lung examination. Individuals with bacterial pneumonia characteristically exhibit unilateral, focal, segmental, or lobar consolidation on chest radiograph. The frequency of these typical radiographic findings, however, may depend on the underlying bacterial pathogen. Disease severity and arterial oxygenation should be assessed in all patients with pneumonia. Noninvasive measurement of arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry is an appropriate screening test. Arterial blood gas analysis is indicated for those with evidence of hypoxemia suggested by noninvasive assessment and for patients who have tachypnea and/or respiratory distress. If previous radiographs are available, they should be reviewed to assess for presence of new findings. Gram stain and culture of expectorated sputum should be performed only if a good-quality specimen can be obtained and quality performance measures can be met for collection, transport, and processing of samples. Correlation of sputum culture with Gram stain can help in interpretation of sputum culture data. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage should be considered, especially if the differential diagnosis is broad and includes pathogens such as Pneumocystis jirovecii. Diagnostic thoracentesis should be considered in all patients with pleural effusion, especially if concern exists for accompanying empyema, and therapeutic thoracentesis should be performed to relieve respiratory distress secondary to a moderate-to-large-sized pleural effusion. Modifiable factors associated with an increased risk of bacterial pneumonia include smoking cigarettes and using injection drugs and alcohol. Antibiotic therapy should be administered promptly, however, without waiting for the results of diagnostic testing. Preferred beta-lactams are high-dose amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanate; alternatives are cefpodoxime or cefuroxime.
Effcacy of combination therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and calcium channel blocker in hypertension discount topamax 200 mg with amex. Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering on the progression of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis purchase topamax 100mg amex. Systematic review: blood pressure target in chronic kidney disease and proteinuria as an effect modifer generic topamax 200 mg without prescription. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis cheap topamax 200 mg amex. Intensive and Standard Blood Pressure Targets in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Blood pressure targets in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus/ impaired fasting glucose: observations from traditional and bayesian random-effects meta-analyses of randomized trials. Tight versus standard blood pressure control in patients with hypertension with and without cardiovascular disease. National Heart Foundation of Australia Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults 2016 69 161. Early intravenous then oral metoprolol in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomised placebo-controlled trial. Clinical outcomes with beta-blockers for myocardial infarction: a meta- analysis of randomized trials. Beta blockade after myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta regression analysis. Reducing risk in heart disease – An expert guide to clinical practice for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Benefts of beta blockers in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: network meta-analysis. Antihypertensive treatment and development of heart failure in hypertension: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of studies in patients with hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. Beta-blocker treatment before angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in newly diagnosed heart failure. The Hong Kong diastolic heart failure study: a randomised controlled trial of diuretics, irbesartan and ramipril on quality of life, exercise capacity, left ventricular global and regional function in heart failure with a normal ejection fraction. Effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade on mortality and hospitalization in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: a systematic review and analysis. Impact of ramipril in patients with evidence of clinical or subclinical peripheral arterial disease. Cardiovascular outcome in white-coat versus sustained mild hypertension: a 10-year follow-up study. Cardiovascular outcome in treated hypertensive patients with responder, masked, false resistant, and true resistant hypertension. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus: treatment implications for clinical practice. Long-term risk of mortality associated with selective and combined elevation in offce, home, and ambulatory blood pressure. Prognostic value of white-coat and masked hypertension diagnosed by ambulatory monitoring in initially untreated subjects: an updated meta analysis. Untreated Masked Hypertension and Subclinical Cardiac Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Response to antihypertensive therapy in older patients with sustained and nonsustained systolic hypertension. Incidence of cardiovascular events in white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension versus true normotension: a meta-analysis. Medical Research Council trial of treatment of hypertension in older adults: principal results. Mortality and morbidity results from the European Working Party on High Blood Pressure in the Elderly trial. Randomised trial of old and new antihypertensive drugs in elderly patients: cardiovascular mortality and morbidity the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension-2 study. Immediate and late benefts of treating very elderly people with hypertension: results from active treatment extension to Hypertension in the Very Elderly randomised controlled trial. The Society of Obstetric Medicine of Australia and New Zealand Guideline for the Management of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Visit-to-Visit Variability of Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease and All- Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome. Effects of antihypertensive-drug class on interindividual variation in blood pressure and risk of stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Effects of beta-blocker selectivity on blood pressure variability and stroke: a systematic review. Clinical features of 8295 patients with resistant hypertension classifed on the basis of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes in treatment-resistant hypertension in patients with coronary disease. National Heart Foundation of Australia Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults 2016 71 203. Predictors and outcomes of resistant hypertension among patients with coronary artery disease and hypertension. Adjusted Drug Treatment Is Superior to Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Patients with True Treatment-Resistant Hypertension. Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adults: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Effect of nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnea. Impact of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The impact of continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: evidence from a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials. Predicting blood pressure outcomes using single-item physician-administered measures: a retrospective pooled analysis of observational studies in Belgium. Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. Antithrombotic Trialists’ Collaboration, Baigent C, Blackwell L, Collins R, et al.
Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 Future Research age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 order topamax 100 mg fast delivery. Well-conducted studies to assess beneﬁt versus ment of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection order topamax 200 mg amex. Long-term follow-up of treated children is Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in adolescents and adults: a needed to validate the use of intermediate biochemical and systematic review to update the U generic topamax 200 mg otc. Preventive Services Task Force virological outcomes for clinically important outcomes cheap 200mg topamax with mastercard. Line- arized hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core-related antigen Acknowledgment: This Practice Guideline was in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B. Clin Microbiol Infect produced in collaboration with the Hepatitis B Sys- 2014;20:1173-1180. Updated deﬁnitions of healthy ranges for serum alanine amino- rate for nucleos(t)ide-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus adefovir dipivoxil for with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection. Lack of effect of antiviral therapy in nondividing hepatocyte cul- years after treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a. Side effects of long-term oral antiviral therapy for hepati- Hepat 2014;21:825-834. Entecavir treatment for chronic hepatitis B: adaptation is not notolerant phase of infection: histologic ﬁndings and outcome. Clin needed for the majority of naive patients with a partial virological response. Three-year efﬁcacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate patients in immune-tolerant phase. Natural history of hepati- Seven-year efﬁcacy and safety of treatment with tenofovir disoproxil tis B e antigen to antibody seroconversion in patients with normal fumarate for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Four years of tenofovir monotherapy for gression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Long-term therapy with adefovir dipivoxil for patients is associated with abnormal renal phosphate handling. The impact of newer nucleos(t)ide Analysis of clinical, biochemical and viral factors associated with early analogues on patients with hepatitis B decompensated cirrhosis. Ann relapse after lamivudine treatment for hepatitis B e antigen-negative Gastroenterol 2015;28:109-117. Santantonio T, Mazzola M, Iacovazzi T, Miglietta A, Guastadisegni A, renal function in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus monoinfec- Pastore G. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015;59: year course of lamivudine treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-negative 3168-3173. Sci prospective clinical study in hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic Rep 2015;5:8528. Clinical events after cessation of lamivu- of the efﬁcacy of tenofovir and entecavir for the treatment of nucle- dine therapy in patients recovered from hepatitis B ﬂare with hepatic os(t)ide-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B. Efﬁcacy and safety of entecavir versus tenofovir treat- dine therapy in patients recovered from hepatitis B ﬂare with hepatic ment in chronic hepatitis B patients: a randomized controlled trial. Efﬁcacy term entecavir therapy results in the reversal of ﬁbrosis/cirrhosis and con- of entecavir-tenofovir combination therapy for chronic hepatitis B tinued histological improvement in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Regression of cirrhosis during treatment with tenofovir diso- monotherapy versus tenofovir and entecavir combination therapy in proxil fumarate for chronic hepatitis B: a 5-year open-label follow-up patients with entecavir-resistant chronic hepatitis B with multiple study. Long- monotherapy versus tenofovir and entecavir combination therapy in term effect of antiviral therapy on disease course after decompensation adefovir-resistant chronic hepatitis B patients with multiple drug fail- in patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. Entecavir treatment for chronic hepatitis B: adaptation is not noma in hepatitis B viral cirrhotic patients: comparison between needed for the majority of naive patients with a partial virological response. Thabut D, Thibault V, Bernard-Chabert B, Mouquet C, Di Martino Med J Aust 2009;190:489-492. Salpini R, Alteri C, Cento V, Pollicita M, Micheli V, Gubertini G, Prevention of vertical transmission of hepatitis B: an observational study. Snapshot on drug-resistance rate and proﬁles in patients with Ann Intern Med 2014;160:828-835. Lower newborn bone mineral content associated with rhosis in inactive carriers of hepatitis B virus. Am J Gastroenterol maternal use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate during pregnancy. The Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry Interim Report for 1 January 1989 analysis of lamivudine for interruption of mother-to-child transmis- through 31 January 2015. Treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B virus infec- women in Botswana receiving antiretroviral treatment. J Infect Dis tion in the United States: patient selection and therapeutic options. Randomized controlled trial of entecavir versus placebo in chil- mother 2009;53:1170-1176. Mirochnick M, Taha T, Kreitchmann R, Nielsen-Saines K, Gastroenterology 2010;138:1357-1364. Effect of elective cesarean section on the risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepati- Additional Supporting Information may be found at tis B virus. Department of Health and Human Services iiii Acknowledgments Contents iii iii The National Institute on Drug Abuse wishes to thank the following individuals for reviewing this publication. Medical University of South Carolina University of New Mexico 7 Frequently Asked Questions Greg Brigham, Ph. University of Kentucky New York University Langone Medical Center 12 Is drug addiction treatment worth its cost? Bowman Gray School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania 15 How do we get more substance- Reese T. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in 21 What are the unique needs of pregnant this publication are used only because they are considered essential in the context of the studies described. This update of the National Institute on 24 Is there a difference between physical Drug Abuse’s Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment is dependence and addiction? It is designed to serve as a resource for healthcare drug addiction affect drug addiction treatment? Addiction affects multiple brain circuits, including those involved in reward and motivation, learning and 27 Where do 12-step or self-help programs memory, and inhibitory control over behavior. Some individuals are more vulnerable than others to becoming addicted, 28 Can exercise play a role in the treatment process? For example, drug abuse and addiction 39 Evidence-Based Approaches to increase a person’s risk for a variety of other mental and Drug Addiction Treatment physical illnesses related to a drug-abusing lifestyle or the toxic effects of the drugs themselves.