By N. Hatlod. University of Detroit Mercy. 2019.
The courts have brahmi 60caps without prescription, however discount 60caps brahmi with visa, given favourable recognition toward economic realities in making allowances for the scarcity of resources when determining whether the facilities and stafng were adequate under the circumstances order 60caps brahmi free shipping. For example 60caps brahmi otc, a 1991 decision of the New Brunswick Court of Queen’s Bench, afrmed on appeal, the “non-availability of trained and experienced personnel, to say nothing of the problems of collateral resource allocation” were considered when evaluating what community standard was to be expected of the hospital that stafed its emergency department with general practitioners due to the unavailability of emergency physicians. The court, in making this determination, examined the coverage available in other intensive care 176. The Canadian Medical Protective Association, Collaborative care: A medical liability perspective (2006) 177. The Canadian Medical Protective Association 47 units in Canada and stated that “no hospital could aford to have anaesthesia residents always at hand, waiting around without other responsibilities until such time as a patient might have occasion to require their services. Interestingly, the British Court of Appeal addressed the issue of insufcient resources leading to inadequate care in a 1993 case and came to a diferent conclusion. The case considered the liability of a hospital with two separate facilities or campuses and the organization of services between them. The emergency services were available only at one site and the health authority argued it could not be expected to do more with the limited resources available. The court rejected this aspect of the hospital’s defence, stating, “…it was not necessarily an answer to allegations of unsafety that there were insufcient resources to do everything that they would like to do. Once a physician-patient relationship has been established, resources when the physician owes a duty to do what is in the patient’s best interest. In the event of a choice determining between a physician’s duty to a patient and that owed to the medical care system, the duty to whether the facilities the patient must prevail. To date, the courts appear unwilling to accept a defence based solely on cost containment to justify withholding treatment or services from a patient. In a British and stafng were Columbia case relating to the alleged failure of the physicians to have diagnosed the patient’s adequate under aneurysm earlier, the court commented: the circumstances. I understand that there are budgetary problems confronting the health care system. I respectfully say it is something to be considered by those who are responsible for the provision of medical care and those who are responsible for fnancing it. I also say that if it comes to a choice between a physician’s responsibility to his or her individual patient and his or her responsibility to the medicare system overall, the former must take precedence in a case such as this. While the courts do not appear willing to apply a lower standard of care for physicians based on cost considerations alone, some relief has been aforded physicians in circumstances where, for economic or other reasons, clinical resources are simply not available. Thus, in a recent case involving the alleged breach of the standard of care for failing to conduct further investigations 180. This consideration will afect the standard of care in that a doctor cannot reasonably be expected to provide care which is unavailable or impracticable due to scarcity of resources. As in other matters, the standard of care expected of a physician is determined by reference to the reasonable conduct of peers in similar circumstances. Physicians should therefore seek a consensus among colleagues and, where appropriate, seek advice from specialty organizations as to what might constitute appropriate guidelines or criteria for prioritizing patients. Physicians might also discuss with the patient, as part of the consent process, limitations in availability of healthcare resources and the reasonable alternatives available to the patient, including seeking treatment elsewhere. Finally, if physicians have concerns about lack of resources or protocols in their hospital that might adversely afect patient care, they should make every efort to draw those concerns to the attention of the appropriate authorities and to work toward resolution of the problem. Perhaps the most comprehensive is the 1990 Federal, Provincial, Therritorial Review on Liability and Compensation Issues in Healthcare chaired by J. Responsibility of healthcare institutions for the quality of care provided in and by them should be increased. An alternative to the no-fault compensation system might be considered for avoidable healthcare incidents that cause serious personal injuries. There is an increasing need for tort reforms, either by legislation or through the courts, to stabilize the issues of liability and, in particular, quantum in professional liability cases. At the moment, there is very little enthusiasm to introduce even a limited no-fault compensation plan given concerns that the costs of implementing such a plan in Canada would represent a signifcant increase over those of the current system. There are, however, several initiatives being pursued to amend the present judicial system to improve case management, explore alternative means of resolving legal actions, and ensure proportionality in the adjudication of disputes. The changing nature of medical practice challenges the law in many ways, particularly related to the use of technology. Early forays into telemedicine were primarily designed as pilot projects to address the extraordinary needs of very remote communities. Thelemedicine or telehealth initiatives are now much broader in scope and may change the way medicine is practised. Thechnology has also raised concerns about security and privacy, electronic medical records, healthcare information networks, and even the nature of the physician-patient relationship. The use of information in communication technologies, particularly related to the Internet, has raised questions about risk and possible new areas of liability for physicians. One example is vulnerability to legal actions in the multiple foreign jurisdictions where individuals (patients) accessing medical information or advice via the Internet might reside. Many questions remain unanswered, as the law has not had sufcient opportunity to formulate answers to these new and novel issues. Conference of Federal-Provincial-Therritorial Deputy Ministers of Health, Federal, Provincial, Therritorial Review on Liability and Compensation Issues in Healthcare/ J. The underlying principle of mutuality is that members agree to collectively share the risks and associated costs amongst themselves. As the complex healthcare environment evolves, the Association will continue to assist member physicians in medical liability issues arising from the professional practice of medicine and looks to members to act in a manner that meets their professional responsibilities. Authorization The Radiation Act stipulates that the party running a radiation practice is responsible for the safety of the operations. In the event of any differences in interpretation of this guide, the Finnish and Swedish versions shall take precedence over this translation. The requirements for the scientific research and to procedures performed professional supplementary training for persons on patients. The basic provisions concerning medical uses of radiation are laid down in chapter 10 of the Radiation 2 Definitions Act (592/1991). Provisions concerning the classification of facilities into controlled and supervised areas as well as the protection of workers and their medical surveillance 3 Use of radiation and are laid down in sections 32 and 33 of the Radiation the safety licence Act. The referring physicians shall consider the justification of the nuclear medicine examinations The general obligations of a responsible party are laid and radionuclide therapies when writing the down in chapter 4 of the Radiation Act. In addition, the nuclear medicine and qualification requirements for operating personnel specialists in charge of these procedures shall are laid down in the Radiation Act and in chapter 5 of ascertain the justification of each procedure. The safety licence application shall have an Radiation doses in radionuclide therapy shall organization description appended that specifies be planned individually for each patient so that the responsibilities relating to the use of the radiation dose to the target tissue or organ is radiation. At the same time, the radiation exposure of non-target The provisions concerning the general principles of tissues shall be as low as reasonably achievable.
The relation among obesity and diabetes or cardiac diseases is well established 60 caps brahmi with visa, but generic brahmi 60caps amex, the role of obesity in the course of infectious diseases is still poorly understood generic 60caps brahmi overnight delivery. Parasitemia was evaluated daily after infection in all of groups by collecting a small fraction of mice‟s tail blood and spreading it in a slide and stained with Giemsa solution discount 60caps brahmi with amex. The parasitemia and the mortality was not significant between obese and control, but we observed a tendency to lower parasitemia in obese and higher mortality rate when compared to control ones. Laboratório de Imunoparasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, roolsou@hotmail. Additionally, the successful pregnancy appears to be correlated with Th2- type maternal immunity and also Treg cells. Methods and Results: In order to investigate mechanisms of susceptibility/resistance of mice with different genetic background in congenital T. The uterus and placenta were evaluated for resorption rate, parasitism, histological analysis and phenotype of cell infiltrates. Introduction: Trypanosoma rangeli has been documented to be a non-virulent protozoan parasite in mammalian hosts. Surprisingly, histological analysis of the liver revealed that this parasite elicited a robust inflammatory infiltrate prominent in mononuclear cells that persisted up to 60 days p. Trypomastigotes treated with normal, but not heat-inactivated, mouse serum displayed profound changes on parasites morphology as well as increased propidium iodide staining, indicating serum components participate of parasite killing. Importantly, pre-treatment of serum with mannose, but not galactose, blocked the observed T. We thus infer that uncharacterized serum components may cooperate to enhance parasite killing by macrophages. Furthermore, serum components, perhaps the complement- activating lectin pathway, are involved in controlling T. This work aimed to evaluate in vitro leishmanicidal activity of menadione (a vitamin K derivative and donor of superoxide anion and H2O2 ) on L. The plates were stained with Panotipo and parasitic indexes were determined by the product of percentage of infected macrophages multiplied by the number of amastigotes/100 macrophages. In order to test resistance and susceptibility of amastigotes forms of these isolates to superoxide anion produced by macrophages, three isolates of L. Conclusion: The performance reported here is comparable to systems available at market and currently in use for blood screening in clinical laboratories and blood banks, with the advantage of being produced with national technology. The parasite has unusual mechanisms for the control of gene expression, such as polycistronic transcription and trans- splicing. Thus, our goal is to understand whether macrophage microbicidal activities are induced, avoided, or actively impaired during infection with L. In histological analysis, the inflammatory reaction ranged from mild to moderate, located in the centrilobular regions, peri-portal and intralobular associated with granulomas composed of macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Despite this evidence, the role of these cells in leprosy is not clearly elucidated. Introduction: Lobomycosis is a chronic dermal mycosis, presenting with nodules, which can be localized or diffuse on the skin. Previously regarded as an infection restricted to humans living at the Amazon Region, it has been recently diagnosed in Africa, and it is rapidly becoming a widespread disease of dolphins, as more animals are diagnosed with lobomycosis in different parts of the world. After running, protein bands were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, and kept on blocking Tris 5% dry milk buffer for 1 h. Then, the membrane was Tris washed 3x and incubated for 1 h with lobomycosis patients plasma diluted 1:50. Gp43 has not been observed at this first immunoblotting analysis, but other strains samples, and new plasma obtained from patients with different clinical forms will be tested to confirm these results. The ear lesion size, parasites burden, cytokines production and inflammatory infiltrated were nd analyzed at 12 week post infection. They have a pancreatic tropism, which often leads to fulminant pancreatitis with subsequent pancreatic insufficiency. Apart of virus proliferation, the Th1 immune response generated to the virus is also responsible to tissue lesion. So, modulation strategies that balance host immune response in eliminating the virus while minimizing injury to the host tissue is the key to treating coxsackievirus-associated pancreatitis. However, there is a debate concerning the relation between the bacterial filamentation and the resistance to antimicrobials and other stress, inclusive the immune response. Many authors suggest that filamentation is a mechanism of resistance to various stresses, while others suggest that filamented cells are an intermediary process in cell death. The resident anaerobic of humans Fusobacterium nucleatum, the predominant species in clinical samples worldwide, was using as a model. The methodology used in this experiment may be useful to evaluate the response of other bacterial species with altered morphology in response to other sources of stress, and thereby elucidate the relationship between filamentation and bacterial resistance. Interestingly, at the beginnig of infection, larger lesions were seen in wild type mice. Introduction: In schistosomiasis, host immune system plays an important role in both parasite development and elimination. Also difference in immune response has been associated to resistance or susceptibility for the disease and to the different clinical forms observed in infected individuals. Granulomatous reaction around eggs is the major pathology associated with schistosome infection, and once again the host immune system plays an important role in granuloma development and modulation. The other animals were treated with praziquantel (400mg/Kg) and thirty days after treatment mice were reinfected with 30 cercariae. Any difference in worm burden was observed between strains after infection or reinfection. Sixty days after infection/reinfection granuloma area was determined in 50 granulomas from each group with a single well-defined egg and at exudative-productive stage. Sixty days after infection/reinfection spleen cells from individual animals were culture in the presence of soluble eggs antigens and cytokines were measured in culture supernatant. Any significant difference in cytokine production was between infected and reinfected mice. Conclusion: Our results indicate that although the difference in the genetic background did not influence parasite survival, it leads to differences in pathology that might be related to the different cytokine profile observed between strains. Additional studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms involved in granuloma modulation after reinfection. Introduction: Vaccine development is essential to control schistosomiasis since chemotherapy does not prevent reinfections. We have recently demonstrated that Smteg is able to activate innate immune response and to induce protective immunity reducing parasite burden, egg elimination and disease morbidity in a vaccine formulation with Freunds adjuvant. In this work, we evaluated the immunological response trigged by Smteg immunization in the absence of adjuvant and its ability to elicit protection against S. Thirty days after the last boost, mice were challenged through percutaneous exposure of abdominal skin. Fifty days after challenge, adult worms were perfused from the portal system and the protection level was calculated. To evaluate humoral immune response, blood samples were collected from retro orbital sinus of each mouse with an interval of 15 days beginning 15 days after the first immunization for measurement of specific anti-Smteg antibodies.
However buy cheap brahmi 60caps, in the first three years of my experience as a thyroid patient buy 60 caps brahmi free shipping, I felt disempowered as endocrinologists consistently told me that my fatigue generic 60caps brahmi, mood changes order brahmi 60caps without a prescription, and weight gain were not due to thyroid disease. Rather, I was informed that I simply needed to diet, exercise, obtain treatment for premenstrual syndrome, and “just relax. My shared experiences with these other women and the lack of information in the literature about thyroid patients’ experience of treatment and doctor-patient relationship inspired me to conduct this research. I graduated in 2003 with a Master’s Degree in Education, with a focus on Community Counseling. I currently work as an adjunct instructor of psychology at a proprietary higher education institution. As a woman with thyroid disease, I realize that this research is both inspired and limited by my views, life experiences, technical skill, and academic experience. That I have a disorder the same as or similar to those of the research participants and am a member of The Thyroid Support Group may have increased the willingness of potential participants to share their perceptions and experiences with me. However, that shared background may have also limited my ability to identify the influence of my assumptions on my interpretations and may lead to over- identification with the research topic or participants. The fact that I am American, female, and White and that participants were female may also have influenced the way we interacted and the way I interpreted their statements, as would the fact that some participants were non-White and could have been from countries other than the United States. I discuss the steps taken to limit researcher bias and ensure data trustworthiness and quality in the section entitled “Qualitative Trustworthiness. According to Creswell (2007), the use of open- ended questions is most appropriate for phenomenological research, as they gather information on the everyday lived experiences of individuals, from which the researcher can identify themes. Therefore, as the sole interviewer, I collected data via open-ended questions in online chat with the participants regarding their experiences with thyroid disease, including their physical and emotional experiences, perceptions of physicians’ attitudes, satisfaction with treatment (e. For example, participants were asked to answer, “Please tell me, what has been your experience in seeking treatment for thyroid disease? Demographic data collected at the beginning of the interview included age, ethnicity, education level, thyroid disease diagnosis, number of years since diagnoses, treatment (e. In order to triangulate data gathered from the interviews, participants were asked to provide copies of their electronic journals or diaries, if available and only if the participants wished to provide them. Data triangulation and additional steps taken to ensure data trustworthiness and quality are further discussed in the section entitled “Qualitative Trustworthiness. Instrumentation An interview guide I created (see Appendix A) was used to gather data. An external panel of three experts in qualitative methods was consulted regarding the accuracy of the interview guide. In order to enhance the reliability and validity of the interview guide, feedback from the expert panel regarding the wording and order of the interview questions was incorporated into the final version of the guide. The research question matrix shown in Table 1 depicts the relationship between the nine interview questions and the research questions. What are the treatment experiences of women seeking treatment for thyroid disease? What are the treatment experiences of women relationship with the doctor who treats you for with thyroid disease? What are the treatment experiences of women man, influence your relationship with your doctor? What are the treatment experiences of women your doctor about symptoms or medical issues you with thyroid disease? How does the doctor-patient relationship affect comfortable in sharing your experience of these their experiences? After each interview, I personally copied and pasted each transcript verbatim onto a password-protected thumb drive. Data Analysis To help ensure data trustworthiness and quality, I utilized the services of a colleague (on a voluntary basis) to assist me with data interpretation. Before any data analysis and interpretation began, my colleague and I signed a confidentiality agreement (see Appendix E). After I personally organized the interviews, I followed the Stevick/Colaizzi/Keen method as modified by Moustakas (1994) for each source. Begin by describing the researcher’s own personal experience with the phenomenon in order to disclose and attempt to set aside biases. Examine the interview transcripts or other data, looking for significant statements about how the participants experience the phenomenon, in order to develop a comprehensive list of non-overlapping statements. Write a description of what (“textural description”) the participants experienced with the phenomenon, including verbatim examples. Combine the textural and structural descriptions into a composite depiction of the essence of the experience. The latter allows “opening up the codes to reflect the views of the participants in a traditional qualitative way” (Creswell, 2007, p. I identified significant statements and themes based on the theoretical perspectives of feminism and social constructivism (a priori coding). More specifically, statements and themes related to the issues of (a) communication (gender differences; see Cheney & Ashcraft, 2007; Tannen, 2007), (b) culture (medical profession and education; see Kaiser, 2002; Thomas, 2001), and (c) diagnostic bias (see Hamberg et al. While it is known that the prevalence of thyroid disease is much higher in women than men across cultures (Canaris et al. Based upon my communications with 102 members of The Thyroid Support Group and current feminist literature, I had anticipated that themes will emerge in the following areas: (a) gender differences in communication (see Cheney & Ashcraft, 2007; Tannen, 2007), (b) culture of the medical profession (see Kaiser, 2002; Thomas, 2001), and (c) gender in diagnostic bias (see Hamberg et al. In addition, as the support group was international, it was possible that various patterns could emerge based on the participants’ culture, ethnicity, or both. In order to help validate the findings, I asked the participants to review the findings for accuracy and thoroughness. My colleague saved the participants’ interview transcripts and my interpretations onto a password-protected thumb drive. My colleague reviewed my interpretations of the data and provided me with feedback. I used my colleague’s feedback as a “reality check” to guard against my subjectivity as an individual with thyroid disease. Permission was also sought and obtained from the group owner-moderator of The Thyroid Support Group via a letter of cooperation (see Appendix B), after which members of The Thyroid Support Group were invited via an on-list e-mail to participate in the study (see Appendix C). Through the invitation, per the guidance of Ayling and Mewes (2009), I instructed interested members to create a free 103 email account using a fictitious name and to respond to my invitation via off-list, individual email with their new email account and fictitious name. I responded to the first 15 volunteers (not including myself) via off-list, individual emails and sent them a Consent Form (see Appendix D) explaining that they were chosen for the study because they are women with a thyroid disease diagnosis. Please note that I used implied, rather than informed, consent to safeguard participant anonymity. I instructed each volunteer to review the consent form and to respond to my email off-list using her new email account and fictitious name to set up a date and time for her individual interview if she was still interested in participating. The consent form informed prospective participants about the procedures and time commitments of the study, potential risks and benefits, limits to confidentiality, their right to withdraw from the study at any time without penalty, and contact information for myself and my advisor.
The studies in China have found that almost 4% of the metacercariae encyst in the water cheap brahmi 60 caps mastercard. The definitive hosts buy brahmi 60 caps with mastercard, humans or swine cheap brahmi 60caps overnight delivery, become infected by consuming aquatic plants or water with metacercariae brahmi 60caps lowest price. In the intestine, the metacercaria is released from its envelope, and after about three months, the parasite reaches maturity and reinitiates the cycle by oviposition. Geographic Distribution and Occurrence: The infection is common in south- east Asia (Waikagul, 1991). The parasitosis occurs in Bangladesh, central and south- ern China, India, the Indochina peninsula, Indonesia, and Taiwan. Cases have also been reported, many of them among immigrants, in the Philippines, Japan, and sev- eral Western countries. Prevalence is very variable but generally low in humans and is thought to be higher in the areas where swine are raised. In several areas of Chekiang and Kiangsi Provinces, China, the prevalence can be as high as 85%; in contrast, in other areas of the coun- try infection rates ranging from less than 1% to 5% are found. Approximately half of all human infections are believed to occur in China (Malek, 1980). A study conducted in an endemic area of Thailand found that the preva- lence of infection in humans was similar to that of the swine population. In some areas of China with high rates of human infection, the parasitosis in swine has not been con- firmed. This would seem to indicate that, at least in some areas, humans are the par- asite’s preferred host. The Disease in Man and Animals: This parasite produces few or no symptoms in most hosts. Perhaps because it is the largest trematode affecting man, traumatic, toxic, and obstructive effects have been attributed to it, with epigastric pain, nausea, diarrhea, undigested food in the feces, and edemas of the face, abdomen, and legs. Yet a clinical study of a group of mostly young persons in Thailand who were elim- inating F. The severe disease described in the lit- erature seemingly corresponds to cases with a large parasite burden (Liu and Harinasuta, 1996). By and large, the health of the pigs is not affected, and the symptoms of the disease occur only in cases of massive parasitosis. Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission: The source of infection for humans and swine is aquatic plants and water containing metacercariae. Epidemiological research in China suggests that between 10% and 13% of persons and from 35% to 40% of swine are infected more from drinking water contaminated with metacercariae than from eating plants. Endemic areas offer the ecological con- ditions necessary for the growth of both the intermediate hosts and the edible aquatic plants. In central Thailand, these conditions occur in flooded fields, where edible aquatic plants are cultivated near dwellings. These fields receive human excreta directly from the houses, which are built on pillars. Human and animal excreta pro- mote the development of mollusks and plants and provide the infective material (the parasite’s eggs) for the host. The hosts are the snails Hippeutis umbilicalis and Segmentina trochoideus in Bangladesh, in addition to Polypylis hemisphaerula in China, Thailand, and Taiwan (Gilman et al. It has also been found that Helicorbis umbilicalis is an intermediate host in Laos (Ditrich et al. The epi- demiologically important aquatic plants, whose fruits, pods, roots, bulbs, or stems are eaten by humans, are “water chestnuts” (Eliocharis spp. Certain parts of these plants are eaten raw, and the teeth and lips are often used to peel the pods and bulbs. In areas where people customarily boil the plants or their “fruits” (water chestnuts) before eating them but give them raw to swine, the infection rate is much higher in these animals than in humans. In general, the preva- lence of human infection is higher in areas where the aquatic plants are cultivated and lower in distant towns, since metacercariae attached to the plants are not resistant to desiccation when some time elapses between harvest and marketing. The pig is con- sidered a reservoir of the parasite that could maintain the infection in the human pop- ulation even if the sanitary elimination of human excreta were achieved. In Muslim countries, such as Bangladesh, swine do not play any role as a reservoir; man is prac- tically the only reservoir and only source of infection for snails (Gilman et al. The infection can be imported by patients into regions where intermediate hosts exist; one study found that 3 of 93 Thai workers in Israel were infected by F. The eggs are very similar to those of Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica; experts say that the eggs of F. There are no reports on attempts at immunological diagnosis, but the parasite has shown cross- reactions in tests for Fasciola hepatica, the larva of Taenia solium, and Trichinella spiralis. Control: The simplest way to prevent human parasitosis is to refrain from eating fresh or raw aquatic plants, peeling them with the teeth, or drinking water from con- taminated areas, but this recommendation requires changing a habit, which is diffi- cult to achieve. Studies conducted in China have shown that immersing contami- nated plants in boiling water for 1 to 2 minutes is sufficient to kill the parasite. Other measures to combat the parasitosis, in addition to health education, are to use mol- luscicides, to treat the affected population, to treat the human excreta in septic tanks or with quicklime, to prevent the fertilization of fields with human feces, and to pro- hibit swine raising in endemic areas. Larval stages of medically important flukes (Trematoda) from Vientiane province, Laos. Etiology: The agent of this infection is Gastrodiscoides (Amphistomum) hominis, a bright-pink, pear-shaped trematode 5–14 mm long by 4–66 mm wide; it lives in the cecum and ascending colon of swine and humans, although it has also been found in monkeys and field rats (Soulsby, 1982). The anterior part of the parasite is conical, but the posterior opens into a disc with a suction cup. The eggs leave the host without embryonating and take 16 to 17 days, at 27°C to 34°C, to form the first juvenile stage (miracidium) and hatch (Neva, 1994). In experiments in India, miracidia were able to produce infection in the planorbid snail Helicorbis coenosus, which may be the natural intermediate host. Details of development in the snail are not known, but judging from the cycle of other members of the same family, they are presumed to form oocysts, one or two generations of rediae, and cercariae. Depending on the ambient temperature, the cercariae begin to emerge from the snails 28 to 152 days after infection. Like those of other species of Gastrodiscidae, the cercariae are thought to encyst on aquatic plants and develop into metacercariae. Geographic Distribution and Occurrence: This parasitosis occurs primarily in India (states of Assam, Bihar, Orissa, and West Bengal) and in Bangladesh, but has also been recorded in the Philippines, the Indochina peninsula, and in animals in Indonesia (Java), Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand. The geographic distribution may be wider, since the parasite was found in a wild boar in Kazakhstan. Human infection rates vary and can be very high, as in a village in Assam, India, where 41% of the population, mostly children, had the parasite’s eggs in their stools. The infection is also found in rodents and several species of nonhuman primates in Asia: rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and cynomologus monkeys (M. The infection rate in swine in India is higher in late summer and early autumn, reaching its peak between June and September (Roy and Tandon, 1992).
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